Famous Events on this Day in History, March 23:1026 - Koenraad II crowns himself king of Italy
1066 - 18th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet
1153 - Treaty of Konstanz between Frederik I "Barbarossa" & Pope Eugene III
1174 - Jocelin, abbot of Melrose, is elected bishop of Glasgow.
1490 - 1st dated edition of Maimonides "Mishna Torah" published
1490 - Maimonides Mishneh Torah published
1534 - Aragonese legal code formally recognised
1568 - Treaty of Longjumeau: French huguenots go on strike
1579 - Friesland joins Union of Utrecht
1593 - English Congressionalist Henry Barrow accused of slander
1630 - French troops occupy Pinerolo Piedmont
1657 - France & England form alliance against Spain; England gets Dunkirk
1708 - English pretender to the throne James III lands at Firth of Forth
1743 - English premiere of Handel's "Messiah"
1743 - George Frideric Handel's oratorio "Messiah" premieres in London
1752 - Pope Stephen II elected to succeed Zacharias, died 2 days later
1775 - Patrick Henry proclaims "Give me liberty or give me death"
1794 - 1st US patent (Joseph G Pierson for a riveting machine)
1794 - Josiah Pierson patents a "cold-header" (rivet) machine
1794 - Lt-general Tadeusz Kosciuszko returns to Poland
1808 - Napoleon's brother Joseph takes the throne of Spain
1821 - Battle and fall of city of Kalamata, Greek War of Independence.
1832 - British Parliament passes reform bill
1835 - Charles Darwin reaches Los Arenales, in the Andes
1836 - Coin Press invented by Franklin Beale
1839 - 1st known use of term OK (Boston)
1839 - 1st recorded use of "OK" [oll korrect] (Boston's Morning Post)
1840 - Draper takes 1st successful photo of the Moon (daguerrotype)
1848 - The ship John Wickliffe arrives at Port Chalmers carrying the first Scottish settlers for Dunedin, New Zealand. Otago province is founded.
1849 - Battle of Novara (King Charles Albert vs Italian republic)
1857 - Elisha Otis' 1st elevator installed (488 Broadway, NYC)
1858 - Streetcar patented (E A Gardner of Phila)
1861 - London's 1st tramcars, designed by Mr Train of NY, begins operating
1862 - Battle of Kernstown VA-Jackson begins his Valley Campaign
1864 - Encounter at Camden AR
1865 - General Sherman/Cox' troops reach Goldsboro NC
1867 - Congress passes 2nd Reconstruction Act over Pres Johnson's veto
1868 - U of Calif founded (Oakland Calif)
1873 - Slavery abolished in Puerto Rico
1879 - War of the Pacific was fought between Chile and the joints forces of Bolivia and Peru. Chile successfully took over Arica and Tarapacá which left Bolivia as a landlocked country.
1880 - Flour rolling mill patented (John Stevens of Wisc)
1881 - Boers & Britain sign peace accord; end 1st Boer war
1881 - Gas lamp sets fire to Nice France opera house; 70 die
1889 - Pres Harrison opens Oklahoma for white colonization
1889 - The free Woolwich Ferry officially opens in east London.
1889 - The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community was established by Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in Qadian India.
1891 - 1st jazz concert was held at Carnegie Hall
1896 - Umberto Giordano's opera "Andrea Chénier," premieres in Milan
1896 - The Raines Law is passed by the New York State Legislature, restricting Sunday sale of alcohol to hotels.
1901 - Dame Nellie Melba, reveals secret of her now famous toast
1903 - Wright brothers obtain airplane patent
1908 - American diplomat Durham Stevens is attacked by Korean assassins Jeon Myeong-un and Jang In-hwan, leading to his death in a hospital two days later.
1910 - 1st race at Los Angeles Motordrome (1st US auto speedway)
1912 - Dixie Cup invented
1915 - Zion Mule Corp forms
1917 - Tornadoes kills 211 over 4 days in Midwest US
1918 - Alick Wickham dives 200' into Australia's Yarra River
1918 - Crépy-en-Laonnoise: German artillery shells Paris, 256 killed
1918 - Lithuania proclaims independence
1918 - Paris bombs "Thick Bertha's Dike" (nickname for the widow Krupp)
1919 - Bashkir ASSR, in RSFSR, constituted
1919 - Benito Mussolini forms Fascist movement in Milan Italy
1919 - Moscow's Politburo/Central Committee forms
1920 - Perserikatan Communist of India (PKI) political party forms
1922 - 1st airplane lands at the US Capitol in Washington, DC
1922 - KMJ-AM in Fresno CA begins radio transmissions
1922 - WEW-AM in Saint Louis MO begins radio transmissions
1923 - Frank Silver & Irving Conn release "Yes, We Have No Bananas"
1925 - Tennessee becomes 1st state to outlaw teaching theory of evolution
1926 - NHL Championship: Mont Canadiens outscore Pitt Pirates, 6-4 in 2 games
1929 - 1st telephone installed in White House
1930 - US Ladies Figure Skating championship won by Maribel Vinson
1930 - US Mens Figure Skating championship won by Roger Turner
1931 - Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev embrace the gallows during the Indian struggle for independence. Their request to be shot by a firing squad is refused.
1933 - Enabling Act: German Reichstag grants Adolph Hitler dictatorial powers
1933 - Kroll Opera in Berlin opens
1934 - US Congress accepts Philippines independence in 1945
1936 - Italy, Austria & Hungary sign Pact of Rome
1937 - LA Railway Co starts using PCC streetcars
1938 - Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis frees 74 St L Cardinals minor leaguers
1940 - 1st radio broadcast of "Truth or Consequences" on CBS
1940 - All-India-Moslem League calls for a Moslem homeland
1940 - The Lahore Resolution (Qarardad-e-Pakistan or the then Qarardad-e-Lahore) is put forward at the Annual General Convention of the All India Muslim League.
1942 - 2,500 Jews of Lublin massacred or deported
1942 - Japanese forces occupy Andaman Islands in Indian Ocean
1942 - US move native-born of Japanese ancestry into detention centers
1943 - German counter attack on US lines in Tunisia
1944 - Bomb assassination against Southern Tirol congregation in Rome, 33 die
1944 - Nicholas Alkemade falls 5,500 m without a parachute & lives
1945 - British 7th Black Watch crosses the Rhine
1945 - Largest operation in Pacific war, 1,500 US Navy ships bomb Okinawa
1945 - Premier Churchill visits Montgomery's headquarter in Straelen
1946 - 8th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Oklahoma State beats NC 43-40
1948 - John Cunningham sets world altitude record (54,492' (18,133 m))
1949 - Sidney Kingsley's "Detective Story," premieres in NYC
1950 - "Great to Be Alive" opens at Winter Garden Theater NYC for 52 perfs
1950 - 22rd Academy Awards - "All King's Men," Crawford & De Havilland win
1950 - Sophocles Venizelos forms liberal Greeks government
1950 - UN World Meteorological Org established
1951 - Wages in France increase 11%
1952 - Rangers with less than 14 minutes to go blow a 6-2 lead, losing 7-6 to Chicago Black Hawks. Mosienko scores 3 times in 21 seconds
1956 - 18th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: SF beats Iowa 83-71
1956 - Pakistan proclaimed an Islamic republic in Commonwealth (Natl Day)
1956 - Sudan becomes independent
1957 - 19th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: NC beats Kansas 54-53 (3 OTs)
1957 - US army sells last homing pigeons
1960 - Explorer (8) fails to reach Earth orbit
1962 - JFK visits SF
1962 - Nawab of Pataudi captains India cricket v WI age 21 years 77 days
1962 - Wake Forest coach "Bones" McKinney becomes 2nd person to play & coach
1962 - William DeWitt buys Cin Reds for $4,625,000
1963 - 25th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Loyola beats Cin 60-58 (OT)
1963 - Rolf Hochhuth's "Der Stellvertreter," premieres in Berlin
1964 - UNCTAD 1 world conference opens in Geneva
1965 - Gemini 3 launched, 1st US 2-man space flight (Grissom & Young)
1965 - Moroccan army shoots on demonstrators, about 100 killed
1966 - 1st official meeting after 400 years of Catholic & Anglican Church
1968 - 30th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: UCLA beats NC 78-55
1968 - Rev Walter Fauntroy, is 1st non-voting congressional delegate from DC
1969 - Kathy Whitworth wins LPGA Port Charlotte Golf Invitational
1969 - Rally for Decency (Miami)
1970 - US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1971 - Dutch 2nd Chamber accept simplified divorce
1971 - USSR performs underground nuclear test
1972 - Evil Knievel breaks 93 bones after successfully clearing 35 cars
1972 - NY Yanks agree to continue playing ball in the Bronx
1973 - After a 5½ year run soap "Love is a Many Splendored Thing" ends
1973 - US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1973 - Yoko Ono is granted permanent residence in US
1975 - Sue Roberts wins LPGA Bing Crosby International Golf Classic
1976 - International Bill of Rights goes into effect (35 nations ratifying)
1978 - US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1979 - Larry Holmes TKOs Osvaldo Ocasio in 7 for heavyweight boxing title
1979 - Wings release "Goodnight Tonight"
1980 - Border completes 150 in each inning of Test Cricket v Pakistan
1980 - Donna Caponi Young Pro-Am wins LPGA National Golf Tournament
1980 - France performs nuclear test
1980 - Shah of Iran arrives in Egypt
1981 - Supreme Court upholds law making statutory rape a crime only for men
1981 - Supreme Court rules states could require, with some exceptions, parental notification when teen-age girls sought abortions
1982 - Guatemala military coup under gen Rios Montt, pres Romeo Lucas flees
1982 - Isle's Mike Bossy's 20th career hat trick-4 goals
1983 - US president Ronald Reagan introduces "Star Wars"-plan (SDI)
1984 - Andrea Schone skates ladies world record 3 km (4:20.91)
1984 - Ice Dance Championship at Ottawa won by J Torvill & Chris Dean (GRB)
1984 - Ice Pairs Championship at Ottawa won by Underhill & Paul Martini (CAN)
1984 - Ladies Fig Skating Championship in Ottawa won by Katarina Witt (GDR)
1984 - Men's Fig Skating Championship in Ottawa won by Scott Hamilton (USA)
1985 - Billy Joel weds supermodel Christie Brinkley
1985 - Discovery moves to Vandenberg AFB for mating of STS 51-D mission
1985 - Julian Lennon's 1st concert (San Antonio Texas)
1985 - US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1986 - 6th Golden Raspberry Awards: Rambo: First Blood Part II wins
1986 - Heavyweight Trevor Berbick KOs Pinklon Thomas
1986 - Penny Pulz wins LPGA Circle K Tucson Golf Open
1987 - Soap "Bold & Beautiful" premieres
1987 - US offers military protection to Kuwaiti ships in the Persian Gulf
1987 - West Germany SPD chairman Willy Brandt resigns
1989 - 2 Utah scientists claim they have produced fusion at room temperature
1989 - Joel Steinberg sentenced to 25 yrs for killing his adopted daughter
1990 - Former Exxon Valdez Captain Joseph Hazelwood ordered to help clean up Prince William Sound & pay $50,000 in restitution for 1989 oil spill
1991 - 20 Tornadoes kill 5 in Tennessee
1991 - Sergei Bubka pole vaults world record indoor (6.12m)
1991 - 1st World League of American Football games, London beats Frankfurt 24-11, Sacramento beats Raleigh-Dur 9-3 & Mont beats Birmingham 20-5
1992 - Florida Marlins begin selling tickets
1993 - Belgian govt of Dehaene, resigns
1993 - NY Knicks & Phoenix Suns get into a major brawl
1994 - Amy Fisher's lover Joey Buttafuoco is released from jail
1994 - Graeme Obree bicycles world record 10 km (11:28)
1994 - Howard Stern formally announces his Libertarian run for NY governor
1994 - Joey Buttafuoco, released from jail after 4 months & 9 days
1994 - Last day of Test cricket for Kapil Dev
1994 - Russian Airbus A-310 crashes in Siberia (74-75 killed)
1994 - Wayne Gretzky sets NHL record with 802 goals scored
1994 - Richard Jacobs buys naming rights to Indians new ball park at Gateway for $13.8 million (renamed Jacobs Field)
1995 - "How To Succeed in Business..." opens at R Rodgers NYC for 548 perfs
1995 - Dollar equals 88.41 yen (record)
1996 - Taiwan holds its first direct elections and chooses Lee Teng-hui as President.
1997 - "Mandy Patinkin in Concert," closes at Lyceum Theater NYC
1997 - 17th Golden Raspberry Awards: Striptease wins
1997 - Betsy King wins LPGA Standard Register PING
1997 - Liberty Legends of Senior Golf
1997 - Phil Mickelson wins Bay Hill Golf Invitiational
1997 - Wrestlemania XIII in Chicago, Undertaker beats Psycho Sid for title
1997 - wins Standard Register PING
1998 - 70th Academy Awards -
1999 - Gunmen assassinate Paraguay's Vice President Luis María Argaña.
2001 - The Russian Mir space station is disposed of, breaking up in the atmosphere before falling into the southern Pacific Ocean near Fiji.
2003 - In Nasiriyah, Iraq, 11 soldiers of the 507th Maintenance Company as well as 18 U.S. Marines are killed during the first major conflict of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
2004 - Andhra Pradesh Federation of Trade Unions holds its first conference in Hyderabad, India.
2005 - The United States 11th Circuit Court of Appeals, in a 2-1 decision, refuses to order the reinsertion of Terri Schiavo's feeding tube.
2005 - A major explosion at the Texas City Refinery kills 15 workers.
2006 - The Federal Reserve discontinues publishing M3 money supply.
2007 - Burnley Tunnel catastrophe occurs in Melbourne, Australia.
2007 - Iranian Navy seize Royal Navy personnel in Iraqi waters.