Famous Events on this Day in History, October 23:4004 BC - Creation of the world begins according to the calculations of Archbishop James Ussher
42 BC - Roman Republican civil wars: Second Battle of Philippi - Brutus's army is decisively defeated by Mark Antony and Octavian. Brutus commits suicide.
425 - Valentinian III is elevated as Roman Emperor, at the age of 6.
502 - The Synodus Palmaris, called by Gothic king Theodoric the Great, discharges Pope Symmachus of all charges, thus ending the schism of Antipope Laurentius.
585 - Burgundy king Guntram opens synod of Mâcon (Mastico)
787 - Byzantine empress Irene recovers Iconclastic cult at Nicaea
1086 - Battle of Zalaka: Alfonso VI vs Almoravids
1086 - At the Battle of az-Zallaqah, the army of Yusuf ibn Tashfin defeats the forces of Castilian King Alfonso VI.
1091 - Tornado (possible T8/F4) strikes the heart of London killing 2 and demolishing the then wooden London Bridge
1157 - The Battle of Grathe Heath ends the civil war in Denmark. King Sweyn III is killed and Valdemar I restores the country.
1229 - Otto II becomes earl of Gelre
1520 - King Carlos I crowned, German emperor Charles V
1588 - Medina Sidonia's Spanish Armada returns to Santander
1641 - Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641 - anniversary commemorated by Irish Protestants for over 200 years.
1642 - Battle at Edgeville (Warwick): King Charles I vs English parliament
1644 - Sea battle of Fehmarn Sont: Adm Thijssen beats Denen
1668 - Jews of Barbados forbidden to engage in retail trade
1679 - Meal Tub Plot against James II of England
1681 - French troops under King Louis XIV occupy Staatsburg
1684 - Colony Massachusetts under authority of English crown mounted
1690 - Revolt in Haarlem after public ban on smoking
1694 - American colonial forces, led by Sir William Phipps, fail to seize Quebec.
1702 - -24] Battle in Bay of Vigo: Neth/Engl fleet destroy Span/French fleet
1739 - War of Jenkins' Ear starts: British Prime Minister, Robert Walpole, reluctantly declares war on Spain.
1760 - 1st Jewish prayer books printed in US
1775 - Continental Congress approves resolution barring blacks from army
1790 - Slaves revolt in Haiti (later suppressed)
1805 - Sailing ship "Aeneus" sinks off Newfoundland killing 340
1812 - Failed coup against emperor Napoleon
1813 - The Pacific Fur Company trading post in Astoria, Oregon is turned over to the rival British North West Company (the fur trade in the Pacific Northwest was dominated for the next three decades by the United Kingdom).
1814 - 1st plastic surgery is performed (England)
1824 - 1st steam locomotive is introduced
1853 - Maastricht-Aken railway in Neth opens
1854 - The Times give precise British positions in Krim
1864 - Battle of Westport, Missouri
1864 - Union Gen Samuel R Curtis defeats Conf Gen Stirling Price
1867 - 72 Senators are summoned by Royal Proclamation to serve as the first members of the Canadian Senate.
1871 - Columbia & Sappho (US) beat Livonia (UK) in 3rd America's Cup
1876 - New Orleans Mint reopens as an assay office
1884 - 1st World Series OKed by AA, Providence (NL) beats NY Mets (AA) 6-0
1886 - St Louis Browns win World Championship by beating Chicago 4-3 in 10
1888 - Pelham Bay Park in Bronx, vested
1890 - Opera "Prince Igor" is produced (St Petersburg)
1893 - C Dazey's "In Old Kentucky" premieres in NYC (27 seasons)
1905 - Edward Milton Royle's "Squaw Man," premieres in NYC
1910 - Blanche Scott became 1st woman solo a public airplane flight
1910 - Phila A's beat Chicago Cubs 4 games to 1 in 7th World Series
1910 - Ritz Hotel in Madrid opens: 200 chambers/100 bathtubs
1915 - 1st national horseshoe throwing championship (Kellerton, Iowa)
1915 - 25,000 women march in NYC, demanding right to vote
1917 - 1st Infantry division "Big Red One" shoots 1st US shot in WW I
1917 - Lenin speaks against Kamenev, Kollontai, Stalin & Trotsky
1918 - Actor Charlie Chaplin (29) weds Mildred Harris (17)
1919 - Romberg & Atteridge's musical "Passing Show," premieres in NYC
1920 - Chicago grand jury indicts Abe Attell, Hal Chase, & Bill Burns as go-betweens in Black Sox World Series scandal
1921 - Green Bay Packers play 1st NFL game, 7-6 win over Minneapolis
1921 - Leos Janacek's opera "Kat'a Kabanova," premieres in Brno
1922 - Channing Pollock's "Fool," premieres in NYC
1922 - Conservative A Bonar forms new govt in England
1923 - Babe Ruth makes a postseason exhibition appearance in a Giants uniform
1923 - Giants defeat Balt Orioles 9-0 to benefit former Giants owner John Day
1927 - Town of Netanya Israel founded by Nathan Strauss
1932 - "Fred Allen Show" premieres on radio
1932 - Pieter G Marais, S Afr minister of Education/Development aid
1934 - Jean Piccard & Jeanette Ridlen attain balloon height of 17.341 m (rec)
1935 - Gabby Hartnett selected NL MVP
1935 - Johnny Revolta wins PGA golf tournament
1935 - Dutch Schultz, Abe Landau, Otto Berman, and Bernard "Lulu" Rosencrantz are fatally shot at a saloon in Newark, New Jersey in what will become known as The Chophouse Massacre.
1941 - Walt Disney's "Dumbo" released
1942 - 1st ships of invasion fleet to Morocco leave Norfolk
1942 - During WW II, Britain launches major offensive at El Alamein, Egypt
1942 - German units go through Red October-factory in Stalingrad
1942 - All 12 passengers and crewmen aboard an American Airlines DC-3 airliner are killed when it is struck by a U.S. Army Air Forces bomber near Palm Springs, California. Amongst the victims is award-winning composer and songwriter Ralph Rainger ("Thanks for the Memory", "Love in Bloom", "Blue Hawaii").
1943 - 1st Jewish transport out of Rome reaches camp Birkenau
1943 - Burma railway opens
1944 - 1st Central Kitchen opens in Amsterdam
1944 - Gulf of Leyte battle begin
1944 - Soviet army invades Hungary
1944 - Vice-adm Kurita's sailboat Atago sinks
1945 - Jackie Robinson signs Montreal Royal contract
1946 - UN General Assembly 2nd session convenes (1st NYC-Flushing Meadows)
1947 - NAACP petition on racism, "An Appeal to the World" presented to UN
1947 - Husband & wife Dr Carl Cori & Dr Gerty Cori are 1st spouses to be awarded joint Nobel Prizes
1953 - France grants Laos' sovereignty
1953 - German FR applies to NATO
1953 - WTRF TV channel 7 in Wheeling-Steubenville, WV (CBS) 1st broadcast
1954 - Britain, England, France & USSR agree to end occupation of Germany
1954 - German FR joins NATO
1954 - Pakistan governor-general Ghoelan Mohammed disbands parliament
1954 - WSAU TV channel 7 in Wausau, WI (CBS) begins broadcasting
1955 - Dominican League moves to winter baseball for 1st time
1956 - 1st video recording on magnetic tape televised coast-to-coast
1956 - Revolt against Stalinist policies begins in Hungary
1956 - Thousands of Hungarians protest against the government and Soviet occupation. (The Hungarian Revolution is crushed on November 4).
1957 - 1st test firing of Vanguard satellite launch vehicle, TV-3
1958 - De Gaulle offers Algerians defiance "peace of the brave"
1958 - Soviet novelist Boris Pasternak, wins Nobel Prize for Literature
1958 - USSR lends money to UAR to build Aswan High Dam
1958 - The Springhill Mine Bump - An underground earthquake traps 174 miners in the No. 2 colliery at Springhill, Nova Scotia, the deepest coal mine in North America at the time. By November 1, rescuers from around the world had dug out 100 of the victims, marking the death toll at 74.
1959 - Chinese troops move into India, 17 die
1961 - "Kwamina" opens at 54th St Theater NYC for 32 performances
1961 - USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR
1962 - Adlai Stevenson speaks at UN about Cuba crisis
1962 - USAF Major Robert A Rushworth takes X-15 to 40,800m
1962 - WCIV TV channel 4 in Charleston, SC (NBC) begins broadcasting
1963 - Neil Simon's "Barefoot in the Park," premieres in NYC
1964 - Japanese beat Russian for 1st Olympic Gold in woman's volleyball
1964 - Time Magazine uses term "op art" for 1st time
1966 - Sandra Spuzich/Jack Rule wins Haig & Haig Scotch Mixed Foursome Golf
1967 - "Henry, Sweet Henry" opens at Palace Theater NYC for 80 performances
1967 - NJ Americans (later NY/NJ Nets) play 1st ABA game
1968 - "Maggie Flynn" opens at ANTA Theater NYC for 82 performances
1968 - Kip Keino (Kenya) wins gold medal for 1,500m (3 min 34.9 sec)
1969 - "Jimmy" opens at Winter Garden Theater NYC for 84 performances
1970 - Gary Gabelich sets auto speed record 622.4 mph (1,001 kph)
1971 - WXLT (now WWSB) TV channel 40 in Sarasota-Bradenton, FL (ABC) begins
1972 - "Pippin" opens at Imperial Theater NYC for 1944 performances
1972 - Access credit cards introduced in Great Britain
1972 - WNJS TV channel 23 in Camden, NJ (PBS) begins broadcasting
1973 - Nixon agrees to turn over White House tape recordings to Judge Sirica
1973 - UN's revised International Telecommunication Convention adopted
1973 - Yankee GM & pres Lee MacPhail named AL president
1974 - Cubs trade Billy Williams to A's for Manny Trillo, Knowles & Locker
1974 - Lake Isaac in Cleveland Metroparks' Big Creek Reservation dedicated
1975 - Battle between Cuba & South Africa troops in Angola
1975 - Islander Glenn Resch's 5th shut-out opponent-Flyers 3-0
1977 - 7th NYC Women's Marathon won by Miki Gorman in 2:43:10
1977 - 8th NYC Marathon won by Bill Rodgers in 2:11:38
1977 - Panamanians vote 2:1 to approve new Canal treaties
1977 - Paleontologist Elso Barghoorn announces that 34-billion-year-old one-celled fossils, the earliest life forms, had been discovered
1978 - CBS raises LP prices to $8.98
1978 - China & Japan formally ends 4 decades of dissension
1978 - Sid Vicious attempts suicide while at Riker's Detention Center in NYC
1979 - Billy Martin is involved in a barroom altercation with Joseph Cooper, a Minn marshmallow salesman. Cooper requires 15 stitches
1980 - "Tintypes" opens at John Golden Theater NYC for 93 performances
1980 - McCosker (168) & Dyson (152) make 319 opening stand cricket, NSW v WA
1980 - Soviet PM Nikolai Tichonov succeeds Alexei Kosygin, due to illness
1981 - US national debt hits $1 trillion
1983 - 13th NYC Women's Marathon won by Grete Waitz in 2:27:00
1983 - 14th NYC Marathon won by Rod Dixon in 2:08:59
1983 - 400,000 demonstrate in Brussels, against cruise missile
1983 - Suicide terrorist truck bomb kills 243 US personnel in Beirut
1984 - Cubs Rick Sutcliffe, selected as a unanimous choice as NL Cy Young
1984 - NBC airs BBC footage of Ethiopian famine
1984 - STS 51-A launch vehicle moves to launch pad
1987 - Dutch Govt gives Fokker's Aircraft Y212 million credit
1987 - France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island
1987 - US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1988 - Boston Celtics play Spain in Madrid
1988 - Robert Bork's supreme court nomination rejected by US Senate
1989 - Browns' Bernie Kosar sets club record with a 97-yard TD pass
1989 - George Harrison releases "Best of Dark Horse 1976-89" album
1989 - Hungary proclaims itself a republic & declares communist rule ended
1989 - US 62nd manned space mission STS 34 (Atlantis 5) returns from space
1989 - William Nicholson's "Shadowlands," premieres in London
1990 - Iraq announces release of 330 French hostages
1991 - "Les Miserables," opens at Mogador Theatre, Paris
1991 - Clarence Thomas, sworn in as Supreme Court Justice
1991 - Dr Jack Kevorkian's suicide machine kills 2 women
1992 - Emperor Akihito becomes the first Emperor of Japan to stand on Chinese soil.
1993 - 7 killed by IRA-bomb attack in Belfast
1993 - Paramilitia kills 22 demonstrators at Bijbihara Kashmir
1993 - Tor Blue Jays beat Phila Phillies, 4 games to 2, in 89th World Series
1994 - 3rd Solheim Cup: US beats Europe, 13-7 at Greenbrier WV
1996 - NY Yankees set record by coming back from 6-0 in World Series game to beat Atlanta Braves 8-6, also set record of 7th straight road win
1997 - "Triumph of Love," opens at Royale Theater NYC
1997 - At 6:11 AM San Francisco experiences a black out
1997 - Dow Jones drops 186.88 pts
1997 - Les Alexander, owner of Houston Rockets buys NHL's Edmonton Oilers
1998 - Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian Chairman Yasser Arafat reach a "land for peace" agreement.
2001 - The Provisional Irish Republican Army of Northern Ireland commences disarmament after peace talks.
2001 - Apple releases the iPod.
2002 - Moscow Theatre Siege begins: Chechen rebels seize the House of Culture theater in Moscow and take approximately 700 theater-goers hostage.
2004 - A powerful earthquake and its aftershocks hit Niigata prefecture, northern Japan, killing 35 people, injuring 2,200, and leaving 85,000 homeless or evacuated.