Famous Events on this Day in History, October 01:331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela.
366 - St Damasus I begins his reign as Catholic Pope
704 - Aengibald gives away bishop Willibrord estate in Waalre
911 - During a siege in Constantinople, the Theotokos appeared at the church in Blachernae holding her veil over the praying faithful, among them St. Andrew of Constantinople.
959 - Edgar the Peaceable becomes king of all England.
965 - John XIII Crescentii elected to succeed Pope Leo VIII
1189 - Gerard de Ridefort, grandmaster of the Knights Templar since 1184, is killed in the Siege of Acre.
1273 - Earl Rudolf van Habsburg becomes Roman Catholics-German king
1529 - -3] Meeting between Maarten Luther & Huldrych Zwingli
1569 - Duke of Norfolk arrested
1574 - -2] Storm breaks Leiden dike; drowns 20,000 Spanish soldiers
1606 - Spanish troops under Spinola occupies fort Rhine birch
1632 - Battle at Castelnaudary: Duke Henri de Montmorency's rebel army loses
1653 - Russian parliament accepts annexation of Ukraine
1657 - Treaty of Raalte: Willem II no longer viceroy of Overijssel
1661 - Yachting begins in England; King Charles II beats his brother James
1670 - -4] Battle at Simbirsk a/d Wolga: Russian army beats Boers
1688 - Prince Willem III accept invitation of English crown to occupy
1705 - Parliament declares Hungary independently/French Rákóczi becomes king
1746 - Bonnie Prince Charlie flees to France
1768 - English troops under general Gauge lands in Boston
1787 - Russians under Suvorov defeat the Turks at Kinburn.
1791 - 1st session of new French legislative assembly
1791 - Dutch prince Willem Frederik marries his niece princess Frederika Louise Wilhelmina of Prussia
1795 - France annexes Southern Netherlands
1795 - Belgium is conquered by France.
1800 - Spain cedes Louisiana to France in a secret treaty
1801 - England & France signs Preliminary of London
1814 - Opening of the Congress of Vienna, intended to redraw the Europe's political map after the defeat of Napoléon the previous spring.
1827 - The Russian army under Ivan Paskevich storms Yerevan, ending a millennium of Muslim domination in Armenia.
1829 - South African College is founded in Cape Town, South Africa; later to separate into the University of Cape Town and the South African College Schools.
1830 - General Trade Journal newspaper begins publishing in Amsterdam
1833 - Charles Darwin reaches Rio Tercero Argentina
1837 - "Racer's" Hurricane (Gulf of Mexico)
1837 - Treaty with Winnebago Indians
1838 - Civil Code enforced (- Jan 1, 1992)
1843 - News of the World began publication in London.
1847 - Maria Mitchell discovers a non-naked-eye comet
1847 - German inventor and industrialist Werner von Siemens founds Siemens AG & Halske.
1851 - 1st Hawaiian stamps issued
1854 - The watch company founded in 1850 in Roxbury by Aaron Lufkin Dennison relocates to Waltham, Massachusetts, to become the Waltham Watch Company, a pioneer in the American System of Watch Manufacturing.
1863 - 5 Russian warships welcomed in NYC
1863 - Dutch Breda-Tilburg railway opens
1864 - Cyclone strikes Calcutta: 70,000 killed
1864 - John S Staples is paid $500 as a substitute for President Lincoln
1866 - Dutch Eindhoven-Venlo railway opens
1867 - Karl Marx' "Das Kapital," published
1868 - 1st edition of Maasbode published
1869 - 1st postcards are issued (Vienna)
1869 - Austria issues the world's first postcards.
1871 - General Dutch Werkliedenverbond (ANWV), forms in Utrecht
1874 - Rotterdam opens drink water pipes
1879 - Cincinnati Enquirer publishes 1st report on baseball reserve clause
1880 - John Philip Sousa becomes new director of US Marine Corps Band
1885 - Special delivery mail service begins in US
1886 - US mint at Carson City, Nevada closes
1887 - Balochistan conquered by the British Empire.
1888 - National Geographic magazine publishes for 1st time
1889 - Soccer team HFC Haarlem forms
1889 - Washington voters adopt state constitution in referendum
1890 - Congress creates Weather Bureau
1890 - Yosemite National Park forms
1891 - In the U.S. state of California, Stanford University opens its doors.
1892 - University of Chicago opens
1893 - 3rd worst hurricane in US history kills 1,800 (Mississippi)
1894 - Civic organization, Knights of Ak-Sar-Ben founded in Omaha, Nebraska
1894 - First meeting of The Owl Club of Cape Town.
1895 - Romanians in Costantinople massacred
1896 - Sherlock Holmes adventure "Veiled Lodger" takes place (BG)
1896 - Yosemite becomes a National Park
1898 - Dutch railway Alkmaar-Receiver opens
1898 - Henry Huntington buys LA Railway
1898 - Jews are expelled from Kiev Russia
1898 - Czar Nikolay II expels Jews from major Russian cities.
1898 - The Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration is founded under the name k.u.k. Exportakademie.
1903 - 1st baseball World Series, Pitts Pirates vs Boston Pilgrims (Red Sox)
1904 - JB van Heutsz becomes gov-general of Netherland Indies
1904 - Netherlands & Portugal lay down bounderies splitting Timor
1905 - Frantisek Pavlík is killed in a demonstration in Prague, inspiring Leos Janácek to the piano composition 1. X. 1905.
1906 - Hugh Jennings resigns as Balt manager to take over at Detroit in 1907
1907 - Plaza Hotel (5th Av & 59th Str, NY) opens
1908 - 1st Dutch electric railway in use (Rotterdam-The Hague)
1908 - Henry Ford introduces Model T car (costs $825)
1908 - Jack Chesbro's final Yankee victory, beats Walter Johnson 2-1
1910 - Berkshire Cattle Fair held in Pittsfield Mass (1st state fair)
1910 - Explosion at LA Times kills 21
1910 - Regina Rugby Club's 1st game, losing to Moose Jaw Tigers, 16-6
1911 - United Dutch Diamond workers get 8-hr day
1912 - Yanks lose game #100 en route to a 50-102 season
1918 - World War I: Arab forces under T. E. Lawrence (a/k/a "Lawrence of Arabia") capture Damascus.
1919 - World Series begins as a best of 9 affair, White Sox intentionally throw this series to satisfy gamblers (Black Sox Scandal)
1920 - Dutch law provides for an 8 hour working day
1920 - Sir Percy Cox landed in Basra to assume his responsibilities as high commissioner in Iraq.
1921 - WJZ, Newark NJ begins broadcasting
1922 - Former Chicago Staleys play 1st NFL game as Chicago Bears, win 6-0
1922 - Rogers Hornsby's 3-for-5 ups avg to .401
1924 - Fokker F-7 1st flight (Amsterdam to Batavia)
1924 - Paavo Nurmi runs world record 4 mile (19:15.4) & 5 mile (24:06.2)
1924 - Landis bans Giants Jimmy O'Connell & Cozy Dolan from World Series after they admit an attempt to bribe Phils shortstop Heinie Sand
1926 - An oil field accident cost aviator Wiley Post his left eye, but he used the settlement money to buy his first aircraft.
1927 - Pirates clinch NL pennant with a 9-6 win over Reds
1928 - Leon Vanderstuyft of Belgium bicycled 76 miles 504 yards in 1 hour
1928 - Paavo Nurmi runs world record 15m (46:49.6)
1928 - USSR launches its 1st 5 year plan
1930 - Soccer team WHC forms
1930 - World Series opens at Phila's Shibe Park, Phila A's beat St Louis 5-2
1931 - Spanish Cortes accept general female suffrage
1931 - World Series is a rematch as A's seek 3rd straight title vs Cards
1931 - The second (and current) Waldorf-Astoria Hotel is opened in New York.
1932 - NHL readmits Ottawa & drops Pittsburgh
1932 - Oswald Mosley forms British Union of Fascists
1932 - World Series moves to Chicago, In 5th inning, Babe Ruth waits until he has 2 strikes, points & hits next pitch into center field bleachers
1933 - Antwerp Sports arena opens
1933 - Packers make 5 1st downs, Giants make 0, but still win 10-7
1933 - Wash Senator coach Nick Altrock plays in a game at age 57
1934 - Adolph Hitler expands German army & navy & creates an air force, violating Treaty of Versailles
1936 - Generalissimo Francisco Franco establishes state of Spain
1937 - Pullman Co formally recognizes Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
1938 - Cubs clinch NL pennant
1938 - Germany annexes Sudetenland (1/3 of Czechoslovakia)
1939 - Churchill calls Soviets "riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma"
1939 - After a one-month Siege of Warsaw, hostile forces entered the city.
1940 - Pennsylvania Turnpike, pioneer toll thruway, opens
1941 - D Sjostakovitch plane evacuated in Moscow
1941 - H Martin/R Blanes musical "Best Foot Forward," premieres in NYC
1941 - Yankees beat Dodgers 3-2 at Yankee Stadium in opener of World Series
1942 - Bell P-59 Airacomet fighter, 1st US jet, makes maiden flight
1942 - Little Golden Books (children books) begins publishing
1943 - Allied forces captured Naples during WW II
1943 - Averell Harriman named US ambassador to Moscow
1943 - Germans attack Jews in Denmark
1943 - King's Dragon Guards liberates suburbs of Naples
1944 - Newspaper editor Alejandro Córdova assassinated in Guatemala
1944 - St Louis Browns win their only AL pennant
1945 - Heavyweight champ Joe Louis is discharged from army
1945 - US Office of Strategic Serbia (OSS) disbands
1946 - 12 war criminals sentenced to death in Nuremberg
1946 - 1st NL playoffs, Dodgers vs Cards (St Louis wins 2 games to 0)
1946 - Bob Feller 348th strikeout of season
1947 - 1st helicopter air mail & express service, LA, Ca
1947 - NHL Pension Society founded
1947 - US control of Haitian customs & governmental revenue ends
1947 - William Wister Haines' "Command Decision," premieres in NYC
1947 - The F-86 Sabre flies for the first time.
1948 - Calif Supreme Court voids state statue banning interracial marriages
1948 - Radio Denmark begins transmitting
1949 - People's Rep of China proclaimed by Mao Tse-tung (National Day)
1949 - Republic of China (Taiwan) forms on island of Formosa
1950 - Phillies win NL pennant on last day of season (10th inning HR)
1950 - South Korean troops exceed 38° latitude during Korean War
1950 - Browns lose to Giants, setting club record for fewest points scored by both teams (tied in 1979), NY 6, Cleveland 0
1951 - 1st Giant-Dodgers playoff game, Giants win 3-1
1951 - 1st treaty signed by woman ambassador-Eugenie Anderson
1951 - 24th Infantry Regiment, last all-black military unit, deactivated
1952 - 1st ultra high frequency (UHF) television station, Portland Or
1952 - Liberal Party wins Japanese elections
1952 - Monte Bello-Island (Great Britain 1st atom bomb explosion)
1953 - Indian state of Andhra Pradesh partitioned from Madras
1953 - KJEO TV channel 47 in Fresno, CA (CBS/ABC) begins broadcasting
1953 - KYTV TV channel 3 in Springfield, MO (NBC) begins broadcasting
1953 - WATE TV channel 6 in Knoxville, TN (ABC/NBC) begins broadcasting
1953 - WREX TV channel 13 in Rockford, IL (ABC) begins broadcasting
1954 - British colony of Nigeria becomes a federation
1955 - "Honeymooners" premieres
1955 - Piet Lieftinck becomes director v/h IMF (World bank)
1955 - WORA TV channel 5 in Mayaguez, PR (TCI) begins broadcasting
1956 - Johnny Heckmann rides 7 winners at Chicago Hawthorne Horse track
1956 - Zestienhoven airport at Rotterdam official opens
1957 - B-52 bombers begin full-time flying alert in case of USSR attack
1957 - First appearance of "In God We Trust" on U.S. paper currency.
1958 - Britain transfers Christmas Island (south of Java) to Australia
1958 - Inauguration of NASA
1958 - Vanguard Project transferred from military to NASA
1958 - NASA created to replace NACA.
1959 - 1st World Series since 1948 not to feature a NY team (LA vs Chic)
1960 - 14th NHL All-Star Game: All-Stars beat Montreal 2-1 at Montreal
1960 - KCBY TV channel 11 in Coos Bay, OR (CBS) begins broadcasting
1960 - Nigeria gains independence from Britain (National Day)
1960 - South Korean troops cross 38th parallel into North Korea
1961 - A believed extinct volcanco erupts in Tristan da Cunha
1961 - East & West Cameroon merge as Federal Republic of Cameroon
1961 - KGIN TV channel 11 in Grand Island, NB (CBS) begins broadcasting
1961 - Mickey Wright wins LPGA Mickey Wright Golf Open
1961 - Premiere of Dmitri Shostakovitsch' 12nd Symphony
1961 - Roger Maris sets record of 61 HRs (off of Tracy Stallard)
1961 - US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1961 - WOLO TV channel 25 in Columbia, SC (ABC) begins broadcasting
1961 - WYAH TV channel 27 in Portsmouth, VA (IND) begins broadcasting
1962 - Barbra Streisand signs her 1st recording contract (with Columbia)
1962 - Brian Epstein signs a contract to manage Beatles through 1977
1962 - James Meredith became 1st black at U of Mississippi
1962 - Johnny Carson hosts his 1st Tonight Show, Joan Crawford guests
1962 - Lucy Show premieres
1962 - SF beats Dodgers, 8-0 in 1st of best-of-3 NL playoff
1962 - UN gives Netherlands control of New-Guinea
1962 - US National Radio Astronomy Obs gets a 300' (91m) radio telescope
1962 - WEDH TV channel 24 in Hartford, CT (PBS) begins broadcasting
1963 - 1st time since 1910 no AL player, played in every game
1963 - Nigeria becomes a republic within Commonwealth
1964 - 1st official broadcast of Trans World Radio on Bonaire
1964 - 2nd Dutch televisienet begins broadcastings
1964 - Free Speech Movement launched at U of California, Berkley
1964 - SF cable cars declared a national landmark
1964 - WSJU TV channel 18 in Carolina, PR begins broadcasting
1964 - WTSJ TV channel 18 in San Juan, PR (NBC) begins broadcasting
1964 - WWAY TV channel 3 in Wilmington, NC (ABC) begins broadcasting
1965 - Failed coup under lt col Untung in Indonesia
1965 - France performs underground nuclear test at Ecker Algeria
1966 - Newspaper magnate Thomson purchases "The Times"
1966 - WAEO (now WJFW) TV channel 12 in Rhinelander, WI (NBC) begins
1966 - West Coast Airlines Flight 956 crashes with eighteen fatal injuries and no survivors 5.5 miles south of Wemme, Oregon. This accident marks the first loss of a DC-9.
1967 - KBFI (now KDAF) TV channel 33 in Dallas-Fort Worth, TX (IND) begins
1967 - Kathy Whitworth wins LPGA Ladies' LA Golf Open
1967 - Pink FLoyd's 1st US tour (arrives in NYC)
1968 - "Night of the Living Dead" premieres in Pittsburgh
1968 - The Guyanese government takes over the British Guiana Broadcasting Service (BGBS).
1969 - Concorde 001 test flight breaks sound barrier
1969 - Guernsey & Jersey begin issuing their own postage stamps
1969 - USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
1970 - 63 arrest in riot to buy Rolling Stone tickets in Milano Italy
1970 - Last game at Philadelphia's Connie Mack Stadium, Phils-2 Expos-1
1971 - Joseph Luns becomes secretary-general of NATO
1971 - Simplified echtscheidingsrecht of force
1971 - Walt Disney World in Orlando, Florida opens
1972 - "Don't Play Us Cheap" closes at Barrymore Theater NYC after 164 perfs
1972 - 1st games of World Hockey Association
1972 - 2nd NYC Women's Marathon won by Nina Kuscsik in 3:08:41
1972 - 3rd NYC Marathon won by Sheldon Karlin in 2:27:52
1972 - Kathy Whitworth wins LPGA Portland Ladies Golf Classic
1973 - Leo Durocher resigns as Houston Astro manager
1973 - USSR-West Germany gas tunnel opens
1974 - Watergate cover-up trial opens in Wash DC
1975 - Britain grants internal self-government to Seychelles
1975 - Ellice Islands split from Gilbert Islands, take name "Tuvalu"
1975 - Heavyweight Muhammad Ali KOs Joe Frazier in Manilla
1975 - Muhammad Ali TKOs Joe Frazier in 15 for heavyweight boxing title
1975 - Reunion Island stops printing stamps, France takes over production
1976 - 1st Dutch casino opens
1977 - Brazilian soccer great Pele' retires with 1,281 goals in 1,363 games
1977 - Department Of Energy established
1977 - Elton John honored by MSG Hall of Fame
1977 - Peter Schats opera "Houdini" premieres in Amsterdam
1977 - Yanks win 2nd consecutive AL East title
1978 - Comoros adopts constitution
1978 - Jane Blalock wins LPGA Golden Lights Golf Championship
1978 - Tuvalu (formerly Ellice Islands) declares independence from UK
1978 - Yanks lose 9-2 to Indians forcing a playoff game with Red Sox
1978 - The Voltaic Revolutionary Communist Party is founded.
1979 - Nigeria adopts constitution, Alhaji Shagari becomes president
1979 - Pope John Paul II begins visit of US
1979 - RKO radio network begins operation
1979 - US returns Canal Zone to Panama after 75 years (but not the canal)
1980 - Cosmonauts Ryumin & Popov break space endurance record of 176 days
1981 - Iranian plane crash
1981 - J Chodorov/N Panama's "Talent for Murder," premieres in London
1981 - USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR
1982 - EPCOT Center opens in Orlando Florida
1982 - USSR performs underground nuclear test
1982 - West Germany's Parliament ousts Helmut Schmidt for Helmut Kohl
1983 - Denise Wallace, 18, of Virginia crowned Miss Teen of America
1984 - Gary Trudeau's Doonesbury comic strip resumes after 2-year hiatus
1984 - Peter Ueberroth replaces Bowie Kuhn as 6th commissioner of baseball
1985 - Israeli air raid on PLO-headquarter at Tunis, 68 killed
1986 - President Carter's presidential library/museum dedicated in Atlanta
1987 - "Roza" opens at Royale Theater NYC for 12 performances
1987 - 6 killed by an earthquake measuring 6.1 in LA
1987 - Fiji's constitution is suspended
1987 - The Whittier Narrows earthquake shook the San Gabriel Valley, registering as a magnitude 5.9.
1988 - Bradley Center in Milwaukee opens
1988 - Lowest batting avg for NL champion (Tony Gwynn .313)
1988 - Mikhail Gorbachev became president of Soviet Union
1988 - Robert Englund, actor who plays Freddie Kruger weds Nancy Booth
1989 - Beth Daniel wins LPGA Konica San Jose Golf Classic
1989 - Dallas Cowboy, Ed "Too Tall" Jones records his 1,000th NFL tackle
1989 - Thousands of East Germans flee to West Germany
1989 - US issues a stamp, labeling an apatosaurus as a brontosaurus
1989 - Batting titles decided on final day Puckett goes 2-for-5 edges Carney Lansford .339 to .336, Gwynn's 3-for-4 edges Will Clark .336 to .333
1990 - 10,000 Uganda RPF rebels move into Rwanda
1990 - Meteorite explode above Pacific Ocean
1990 - Pres Bush at UN, condemns Iraq's takeover of Kuwait
1990 - Serbs in Croatia proclaim autonomy
1991 - Howard Stern adds Baltimore to his radio network (WJFK-AM)
1991 - New Zealand's Resource Management Act 1991 commences.
1992 - "Oba Oba '93" opens at Marquis Theater NYC for 22 performances
1992 - Cartoon Cable Network premieres
1992 - Greater Pittsburgh International Airport opens
1992 - Ross Perot re-enters presidental race
1993 - Lennox Lewis TKOs Frank Bruno in 7 for heavyweight boxing title
1994 - Boon completes his 19th Test century (114 v Pak, Karachi)
1994 - Liselotte Neumann wins LPGA GHP Heartland Golf Classic
1994 - South African President Nelson Mandela visits US
1994 - Stanley Betrian sworn in as leader of Curacao
1995 - Bermuda begins using new area code 441
1995 - Gail Graham wins FieldCrest Cannon/Carolina LPGA Golf Classic
1995 - Indians set record of 30 game lead over 2nd place team
1995 - Mike Mussina tosses Balt's 5th consecutive shutout 4-0 win over Tigers
1995 - NY Yankees win 1st baseball wildcard ever
1995 - Rockies are 1st team to make postseason before 7th year in existence
1997 - Carolina Hurricanes 1st game vs Tampa Bay Lightning
1997 - Spice Hot premieres on cable
1998 - Vladimir Putin became a permanent member of the Security Council of the Russian Federation.
2000 - Juan Antonio Samaranch, the chairman of the IOC declares Sydney the "best Olympic Games ever"
2000 - Closing ceremony of the XXVII Olympics in Sydney, Australia
2000 - United States retain Basketball's Olympic gold medal defeating France 85-75
2000 - United States wins the most medals (97), and the most gold medals (40) in Summer Olympics held in Sydney, Australia
2004 - Baseball: Seattle Mariners outfielder Ichiro Suzuki gets his 258th hit of the season, breaking George Sisler's 84-year-old single-season record.
2005 - Bombing kills 23 people in Bali.
2007 - Most of the Racial and Religious Hatred Act 2006 came into force in the United Kingdom.