Famous Events on this Day in History, July 20:514 - St Hormisdas elected as Pope succeeding Pope Sympowerus
1031 - Henry I succeeds father Robert II as King of France
1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold of the war.
1495 - French viceroy of Naples Montpensier surrenders
1498 - Emperor Maximilian names Albrecht governor of Netherlands
1553 - PM John Dudley captured in Cambridge
1608 - Reynier van Oldenbarnevelt marries Anna Weytzen in Delft
1609 - Emperor Rudolf II grants Silezische protestants freedom of religion
1619 - Gerardus Vossius resigns as Dutch regent States college leader
1627 - English fleet under George Villiers reaches La Rochelle [OS=June 10]
1654 - Anglo-Portuguese treaty, Portugal comes under English control
1712 - The Riot Act takes effect in Great Britain.
1738 - North America: French explorer Pierre Gaultier de Varennes et de la Vérendrye reaches the western shore of Lake Michigan.
1749 - Earl of Chesterfield says "Idleness is only refuge of weak minds"
1773 - Scottish settlers arrive at Pictou, Nova Scotia (Canada)
1801 - Elisha Brown Jr pressed a 1,235 pound cheese ball at his farm
1808 - Napoleon decrees all French Jews adopt family names
1810 - Colombia declares independence from Spain
1810 - Citizens of Bogotá, New Granada declare independence from Spain.
1836 - Charles Darwin climbs Green Hill on Ascension
1847 - German astronomer Theodor discovers Comet Brorsen-Metcalf
1849 - Start of 1st Lancashire-Yorkshire clash at Hyde Park, Sheffield
1855 - 1st train from Rotterdam to Utrecht in Netherlands
1858 - Fee 1st charged to see a baseball game (50 cents) (NY beats Bkln 22-18)
1858 - Gathering of Plombieres - Napoleon III meets Cavour
1861 - Confederate state's congress began holding sessions in Richmond, Va
1862 - Guerrilla campaign in GA (Porter's & Poindexter's) [->SEP 20] US580 CS2866
1864 - Battle at Stephenson's Depot Virginia: 200 killed or injured
1864 - Battle of Peachtree Creek-Atlanta Campaign
1866 - Sea battle of Lissa-Austria vs Italy
1868 - 1st use of tax stamps on cigarettes
1871 - British Columbia becomes 6th Canadian province
1871 - British Columbia joins the confederation of Canada.
1872 - Mahlon Loomis patents wireless radio
1876 - 1st US intercollegiate track meet held, Saratoga, NY; Princeton wins
1877 - Military shoots on stopped railroad workers in Balt, kills 9
1878 - 1st telephone introduced in Hawaii
1881 - Sioux Indian Chief Sitting Bull, surrenders to federal troops
1890 - "Gibbons Stamp Monthly" begins publishing
1890 - Snow & hail in Calais, ME
1894 - 2000 fed troops recalled from Chicago, having ended Pullman strike
1903 - Giuseppe Sarto elected Pope Pius X
1906 - Bkln Dodger Mal Eason no-hits St Louis Cards, 2-0
1907 - A train wreck on the Pere Marquette Railroad near Salem, Michigan kills thirty and injures seventy more.
1910 - Former Dutch premier Abraham Kuyper acquitted of corruption
1911 - Boston Red Sox Smokey Joe Wood no-hits St Louis Browns, 5-0
1911 - Generals Henry Wilson/Auguste Dubail sign plan for British Expeditionary army in case of war with Germany
1912 - Phillies Sherry Magee steals home twice in 1 game
1913 - Turkish troop take Adrianopel & Erdine from Bulgaria
1914 - Armed resistance against British rule begins in Ulster
1916 - Giants trade Christy Mathewson to Cin Reds
1917 - Pact of Corfu signed: Serbs, Croats & Slovenes form Yugoslavia
1917 - WW I draft lottery held; #258 is 1st drawn
1918 - World War I: German troops cross the Marne.
1920 - Heerenveen soccer team forms
1921 - Congresswoman Alice Mary Robertson became the first woman to preside over the US House of Representatives.
1922 - Togo made a mandate of League of Nations
1923 - Yanks hit into a triple-play but beat A's 9-2
1924 - Federation Internationale des Echecs (FIDE) forms in Paris
1924 - Teheran, Persia comes under martial law after the American vice consul, Robert Imbrie, is killed by a religious mob enraged by rumors he had poisoned a fountain and killed several people.
1925 - Beirut sultan Pasja al-Atrasj calls Druzen for holy war against France
1925 - Italian-Serbian/Croatian/Slav treaty about Dalmatie
1926 - A convention of the Methodist Church votes to allow women to become priests.
1927 - Lindbergh begins NY flight (Spirit of St Louis)
1928 - The government of Hungary issues a decree ordering Gypsies to end their nomadic ways, settle permanently in one place, and subject themselves to the same laws and taxes as other Hungarians.
1930 - 106°F (41°C), Washington, DC (district record)
1932 - In Washington, D.C., police fire tear gas on World War I veterans part of the Bonus Expeditionary Force who attempt to march to the White House.
1933 - Vatican state secretary Pacelli (Pius XII) signs accord with Hitler
1933 - In London, 500,000 march against anti-Semitism.
1933 - Germany: Two-hundred Jewish merchants are arrested in Nuremberg and paraded through the streets.
1934 - 118°F (48°C), Keokuk, Iowa (state record)
1935 - 1st broadcast of "Gang Busters" on NBC-radio
1935 - Switzerland: A Royal Dutch Airlines plane en route from Milan to Frankfurt crashes into a Swiss mountain, killing thirteen.
1938 - Finland awarded 1940 Olympic games after Japan withdraws
1940 - Germany occupiers forbid Dutch Communist Party (CPN) in Netherlands
1940 - Nazi collaborator Rost of Tonningen appointed director of Marxist
1940 - Billboard publishes its 1st singles record chart (#1 is "I'll Never Smile Again" by Tommy Dorsey)
1941 - Yanks beat Tigers 12-6 in 17
1942 - 1st detachment of Women's Army Auxiliary Corps, begin basic training
1942 - Barbados dismiss Trinidad for 16 in 69 minutes, Derek Sealy 8-8
1942 - Legion of Merit Medal authorized by congress
1942 - Time puts Russian composer Dmitri Shostakovitch on its cover
1942 - Women's Army Auxiliary Corps began basic training at Fort Des Moines
1943 - Joint Chiefs of Staff question adm Nimitz (landing Gilbert Island)
1944 - Brit/Canadian troops occupy Hill 67/Ifs/Bras/Frenouville, Normandy
1944 - British premier Winston Churchill flies to France to meet Montgomery
1944 - Browns Nelson Potter is 1st pitcher suspended for throwing spitballs
1944 - Canadian Cameroon Highlanders conquer St-Andre
1944 - Death March of 1,200 Jews from Lipcani Moldavia begins
1944 - Fieldmarshal von Kluge consults with German commandant at Caen
1944 - Flying Fortresses of US 8th Air Force attack Leipzig/Dessau
1944 - Gen Eisenhower visits Montgomery's headquarter in Normandy
1944 - Heavy storm hampers British offensive at Caen
1944 - Japanese aircraft carrier Hijo sinks by US air attack
1944 - July 20th Plot-Failed assassination attempt on Hitler
1944 - Liberators of US 8th Air Force attack Gotha Russelsheim/Eisenach
1944 - Pres FDR nominated for an unprecedented 4th term at Dem convention
1944 - US 15th Air Force attacks Friedrichshaven Memmingen
1944 - US 9th AF bombs railroad at Chaulnes Sable-sur-Sarthe/Dreux
1944 - US invades Japanese-occupied Guam in WW II
1944 - Violent battles in Verrieres-hill (Normandy)
1944 - Fifty are hurt in rioting in front of the presidential palace in Mexico City.
1947 - 1st political action of Neth Army on Java & Sumatra
1948 - Lou Thesz beats Bill Longson, to become NWA wrestling champ
1948 - Syngman Rhee elected president of South-Korea
1948 - US Communist Party chairman William Forster arrested
1949 - Israel's 19 month war of independence ends
1949 - Vasil Kolarov elected premier of Bulgaria
1950 - "Arthur Murray Party" premieres on ABC TV (later DuMont, CBS, NBC)
1951 - King Abdullah I of Jordan is assassinated by a Palestinian while attending Friday prayers in Jerusalem.
1952 - Emile Zatopek runs Olympic Record 10K (29:17.0)
1952 - Fausto Coppi wins Tour de France
1953 - USSR/Israel recover diplomatic relations
1953 - The United Nations Economic and Social Council votes to make UNICEF a permanent agency.
1954 - Armistice for Indo-China signed, Vietnam separates into North & South
1954 - Tennis champ Maureen Connolly's right leg is crushed in an accident
1954 - West German secret service head Otto John defects to German DR
1956 - France recognizes Tunisia's independence
1956 - Great Britain refuses to lend Egypt money to build Aswan Dam
1956 - US performs atmospheric nuclear Test at Bikini Island
1956 - Yankee pitcher Whitey Ford ties AL record of 6 straight strike-outs
1958 - 40th PGA Championship: Dow Finsterwald shoots a 276 at Llanerch CC PA
1958 - Betty Jameson/Mary Lena Faulk wins Homestead 4-Ball Golf Tournament
1958 - King Hussein of Jordan breaks off diplomatic relations with UAR
1960 - 1st submerged submarine to fire Polaris missile (George Washington)
1960 - Sirima Bandaranaike becomes 1st female premier of Ceylon
1960 - USSR recovered 2 dogs; 1st living organisms to return from space
1960 - The head of the Physics Department at the Israel Institute of Technology, Kurt Sitte, is arrested for espionage.
1961 - French military forces break the Tunisian siege of Bizerte.
1962 - Dmitri Shostakovitch completes his 13th Symphony
1962 - France & Tunisia recover diplomatic relations
1963 - 17 African states & Madagascar sign peace treaty with EC
1963 - 18th US Women's Open Golf Championship won by Mary Mills
1963 - Verne Gagne beats Crusher Lisowski in Minneapolis, to become NWA champ
1964 - 1st surfin' record to go #1-Jan & Dean's "Surf City"
1964 - Dmitri Shostakovitch completes his 10th String quartet
1965 - 18.18" (46.18 cm) of rainfall, Edgarton, Missouri (state 24-hr record)
1965 - NY Yankee pitcher Mel Stottlemyre hits an inside-the-park grand slam
1967 - Pablo Neruda receives 1st Viareggio-Versile prizes
1967 - Race riots in Memphis Tenn
1968 - Jane Asher breaks her engagement with Paul McCartney on live TV
1968 - Iron Butterfly's "In-a-gadda-da-vida" becomes 1st heavy metal song to hit charts, it comes in at #117
1969 - 1st men on Moon, Neil Armstrong & Edwin Aldrin, Apollo 11
1969 - Carol Mann wins LPGA Danbury Lady Carling Golf Open
1969 - Eddy Merckx wins Tour de France
1970 - Dodgers Bill Singer no-hits the Phillies 5-0, giving up no walks
1972 - US performs nuclear Test at Nevada Test Site
1973 - Jack Brisco beats Harley Race in Houston, to become NWA champ
1973 - Chic's Wilbur Wood starts & loses both games of a doubleheader with NY Yankees, 12-2, & 7-0
1973 - The US Senate passes the War Powers Act.
1974 - Heng Yo & Heng Ju, completes 1,000 mile (SF-Seattle) pilgrimage
1974 - Turkey invades Cyprus
1975 - 30th US Women's Open Golf Championship won by Sandra Palmer
1975 - India expels three reporters from The Times, The Daily Telegraph, and Newsweek because they refused to sign a pledge to abide by government censorship.
1976 - Hank Aaron hits 755th & last home run off Angels Jerry Augustine
1976 - Last US troops leave Thailand
1976 - US Viking 1 lands on Mars at Chryse Planitia, 1st Martian landing
1976 - Vietnam War: The US military completes its troop withdrawal from Thailand.
1977 - Flash flood hits Johnstown, Pa, kills 80 & causing $350 mil damage
1977 - The Central Intelligence Agency releases documents under the Freedom of Information Act revealing it had engaged in mind control experiments.
1979 - 44-kg Newfoundland dog pulls 2293-kg load, Bothell, Wash
1980 - 109th British Golf Open: Tom Watson shoots a 271 at Muirfield Gullane
1980 - Joop Zoetemelk wins Tour de France
1980 - Pat Bradley wins LPGA Greater Baltimore Golf Classic
1981 - England set for innings loss v Aust, Botham hits 100 in 87 balls
1981 - Irene Saez, of Venezuela, crowned 30th Miss Universe
1982 - Bombs planted by Irish Republican Army explode in 2 London parks
1982 - IRA bomb attacks in London
1982 - T Macauly & D Vosburghs musical "Windy City," premieres in London
1983 - France performs nuclear Test at Muruora Island
1984 - Uwe Hohn of East Germany throws javelin a record 104.8 m
1984 - Vanessa Williams is asked to resign as Miss America
1985 - Divers find wreck of Spanish galleon Atocha
1985 - The government of Aruba passes legislation to secede from the Netherlands Antilles.
1986 - Jane Geddes wins LPGA Boston Five Golf Classic
1987 - Don Mattingly ties 1st base fielding record with 22 put-outs
1988 - Michael Dukakis selected Democratic presidential nominee
1989 - 93°F, highest overnight low ever recorded in Phoenix Arizona
1989 - Burma govt puts author Aung San Suu Kyi under house arrest
1989 - Photographer Robert Mapplethorpe's show opens at Washington, D.C.'s Project for the Arts after the Smithsonian Institution's Corcoran Gallery cancels it.
1990 - Justice William Brennan resigns from Supreme Court after 36 years
1991 - Kirk Cameron marries Growing Pains co-star Chelsea Noble in upstate NY
1991 - Mike Tyson is accused of raping a Miss Black America contestant
1992 - 121st British Golf Open: Nick Faldo shoots a 272 at Muirfield Gullane
1992 - Round World Air Race begins in Paris
1992 - Václav Havel resigns as president of Czechoslovakia.
1993 - Fire in the press box at Altanta Fulton County Stadium
1993 - Joe Petruzzi files for divorce from Annabella Sciorra (Jungle Fever)
1994 - Major parts of Comet Shoemaker-Levy hit Jupiter (July 16th-22nd)
1994 - OJ Simpson offers $500,000 reward for evidence of ex-wife's klller
1995 - The Regents of the University of California vote to end all affirmative action in the UC system by 1997.
1996 - 26th Olympic games open at Atlanta, Georgia (sched)
1996 - In Spain, an ETA bomb at an airport kills 35
1997 - 126th British Golf Open: Billy Ray Brown shoots a 271 at Royal Troon
1997 - American Justin Leonard wins the British Open shooting at 272
1997 - Burnet Senior Golf Classic
1997 - Michele Redman wins LPGA JAL Big Apple Classic
1998 - Two hundred aid workers from CARE International, Doctors Without Borders and other aid groups leave Afghanistan on orders of the Taliban.
1999 - Falun Gong is banned in the People's Republic of China, and a large scale crackdown of the practice is launched.
2000 - The leaders of Salt Lake City's bid to win the 2002 Winter Olympics are indicted by a federal grand jury for bribery, fraud, and racketeering.
2000 - In Zimbabwe, Parliament opens its new session and seats opposition members for the first time in a decade.
2000 - Terrorist Carlos the Jackal sues France in the European Court of Human Rights for allegedly torturing him.
2001 - The London Stock Exchange goes public.
2001 - Italy: The 27th Annual G8 summit opens in Genoa. An Italian protester in Genoa, Carlo Giuliani, is shot by police.
2002 - South America: A fire in a discotheque in Lima, Peru kills over twenty-five.
2003 - France: Sixteen people are injured after two bombs explode outside a tax office in Nice.
2005 - Canada becomes the fourth country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage, after the bill C-38 receives its Royal Assent.