Famous Events on this Day in History, January 16:

27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate.
550 - Gothic War (535-552): The Ostrogoths, under King Totila, conquer Rome after a long siege, by bribing the Isaurian garrison.
1120 - The Council of Nablus is held, establishing the earliest surviving written laws of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1219 - Floods in Northern Netherlands after storm, 1,000s killed
1325 - Laure de Noves, beloved of Petrarch, marries Hugues de Sade
1362 - A great storm tide in the North Sea destroys the German island of Strand and the city of Rungholt.
1412 - The Medici family is appointed official banker of the Papacy.
1492 - The first grammar of a modern language, in the Spanish language, is presented to Queen Isabella.
1493 - Columbus returns to Spain on his 1st trip
1531 - English Reformation parliament's 2nd sitting
1547 - Ivan IV the Terrible (17) crowns himself 1st tsar of Moscow
1556 - Emperor Karel appoints his son Philip II, king of Spain
1572 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England.
1581 - English parliament passes laws against Catholicism
1605 - The first edition of El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha (Book One of Don Quixote) by Miguel de Cervantes is published in Madrid.
1756 - England & Prussia sign Treaty of Westminster
1759 - British Museum opens in London
1761 - The British capture Pondicherry, India from the French.
1765 - Charles Messier catalogs M41 (galactic cluster in Canis Major)
1776 - Continental Congress approves enlistment of free blacks
1777 - Vermont declares independence from NY
1780 - Battle at Cape St Vincent: admiral Rodney beats Spanish fleet
1795 - French army under Pichegru occupies Utrecht Neth
1809 - Peninsular War: The British defeat the French at the Battle of La Coruña.
1819 - Godert baron van der de Capellen becomes governor of Dutch-Indies
1832 - Charles Darwin lands at San Tiago, Cape Verde
1847 - John C. Fremont is appointed Governor of the new California Territory.
1863 - -Aug 23rd) Cruise of CSS Florida
1864 - Heavy fighting takes place near Dandridge, Tennessee
1865 - Confederate brig-gen John Pegram marries Hetty Cary
1865 - Drunken sailor attacks munitions at Ft Fisher NC, 40 die
1865 - Gen Wm Sherman issues Field Order #15 (land for blacks)
1865 - SF Dramatic Chronicle started
1868 - Refrigerator car patented by William Davis, a fish dealer in Detroit
1870 - Virginia becomes 8th state readmitted to US after Civil War
1871 - Jefferson Long of Georgia sworn in as 2nd black congressman
1877 - Color organ (for light shows) patented, by Bainbridge Bishop
1878 - Captain Burago with a squadron of Russian Imperial army dragoons liberates Plovdiv from Ottoman rule.
1879 - January record 13" of snow falls in NYC (broken Jan 7, 1996)
1883 - Pendleton Act creates basis of US Civil Service system
1883 - Quebec Rugby Football Union forms
1887 - Cliff House damaged when schooner "Parallel"'s powder cargo explodes
1889 - 128°F (53°C), Cloncurry, Queensland (Australian record)
1896 - Defeat of Cymru Fydd at South Wales Liberal Federation AGM, Newport, Monmouthshire.
1897 - John Dewey's essay "My Pedagogic Creed" appears in School Journal
1900 - The United States Senate accepts the Anglo-German treaty of 1899 in which the United Kingdom renounces its claims to the Samoan islands.
1905 - Baseball outfielder Frank Huelsman traded for 6th time in 8 months
1905 - Stanley Cup: Ottawa Silver 7 sweep Dawson City (Yukon) in 2 games Ottawa Silver 7 beats Dawson City (Yukon) 23-2 for Stanley Cup, this is most lopsided playoff game, Frank McGee scores 14 goals
1906 - -13] Conference of Algeciras (about Morocco)
1906 - -Apr 13] Conference of Algeciras (about Morocco)
1908 - Pinnacles National Monument, Calif established
1909 - British explorer Ernest Shackleton finds magnetic south pole
1909 - David, Mawson & Mackay reach south magnetic pole
1911 - Pandora becomes 1st 2-man sailboat to round Cape Horn west to east
1913 - British House of Commons accepts Home-Rule for Ireland
1914 - Writer Maksim Gorki returns to Russia
1915 - Congress authorizes $1 & $50 Panama-Pacific Intl Expo gold coin
1919 - Prohibition ratified by 3/4 of states; Nebraska is 36th
1920 - 18th Amendment, prohibition, goes into effect; repealed in 1933
1920 - 1st assembly of League of Nations (Paris)
1920 - Georgia declares independence
1925 - Gen M Froense replaces Trotsky as People's Commissioner of Defense
1925 - Leon Trotsky dismissed as CEO of Russian Revolution Military Council
1931 - Bradman scores 223 Australia v WI, 297 mins, 26 fours
1933 - Bert Oldfield flattened by Larwood delivery in Adelaide Test
1936 - 1st photo finish camera installed at Hialeah Race track in Hialeah Fla
1936 - Screen Actors Guild incorporates with King Vidor as president
1936 - Spanish socialists/communists/anarchists form Unidad Popular
1938 - Benny Goodman refuses to play Carnegie Hall when black members of his band were barred from performing
1941 - US vice admiral Bellinger warns of an assault on Pearl Harbor
1941 - War Dept forms 1st Army Air Corps squadron for black cadets
1942 - William Knudsen becomes 1st civilian appointed a general in US army
1943 - -60°F (-51°C), Island Park Dam, Idaho (state record)
1943 - 1st US air raid on Ambon
1943 - German 2nd SS-Pantzer division evacuates Charkow
1943 - Red Army recaptures Pitomnik airport at Stalingrad
1944 - Gen Eisenhower took command of Allied Invasion Force in London
1945 - Scottish 52nd land division/1st Commando brigade-assault at Heinsberg
1945 - US 1st & 3rd army meet at Houffalise
1947 - Vincent Aurial elected president of France
1948 - 35 Haganah members are ambushed & killed in Gush Etzyon
1949 - "Rape of Lucretia" closes at Ziegfeld Theater NYC after 23 perfs
1949 - KNBH (now KNBC) TV channel 4 in Los Angeles, CA (NBC) 1st broadcast
1949 - WTOP (now WUSA) TV channel 9 in Washington, DC (CBS) 1st broadcast
1950 - Belgium, Luxembourg & Netherlands recognize Israel
1951 - Viet Minh offensive against Hanoi
1951 - World's largest gas pipeline opens (Brownsville Tx, to 134th St, NYC)
1952 - New Dutch bible translation finished
1952 - US Standard Board clears Stan Musial to get an $85,000 salary
1953 - 27th Australian Womens Tennis: Maureen Connolly beat J Sampson (63 62)
1953 - 41st Australian Mens Tennis: Ken Rosewall beats Mervyn Rose (60 63 64)
1953 - Egyptian Premier Gen Naguib disbands all political parties
1953 - KXLY TV channel 4 in Spokane, WA (ABC/CBS) begins broadcasting
1954 - "South Pacific" closes at Majestic Theater NYC after 1928 performances
1955 - Jackie Pung wins LPGA Sea Island Golf Open
1955 - NFL Pro Bowl: West beats East 26-19
1956 - Egyptian pres Nasser pledges to reconquer Palestine
1957 - 3 B-52s leave Calif for 1st non-stop round world flights
1957 - Cavern Club (Beatle's) opens on Matthews Street in England
1958 - William Gibson's "Two for the Seesaw," premieres in NYC
1961 - "Conquering Hero" opens at ANTA Theater NYC for 8 performances
1961 - Russian espionage ring detected in Great Britain
1962 - Shooting begins on "Dr No"
1962 - Suit accuses NYC Board of Education uses "racial quotas"
1963 - Khrushchev claims to have a 100-megaton nuclear bomb
1963 - Tennessee Williams' "Milk Train Doesn't Stop Here Anymore," premieres
1964 - "Hello, Dolly!" opens at St James Theater NYC for 2,844 performances
1964 - AL owners vote 9-1 against Charlie Finley moving KC A's to Louisville
1965 - "Oh What a Lovely War" closes at Broadhurst NYC after 125 performances
1965 - "Outer Limits" last airs on ABC-TV
1965 - AFL Pro Bowl: West beats East 38-14
1965 - Searchers' "Love Potion #9" peaks at #3
1965 - USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
1966 - Harold R Perry becomes 2nd black Roman Catholic bishop in US
1966 - Metropolitan Opera House opens in Lincoln Center
1967 - 1st black government installed in Bahamas
1967 - Lucius Amerson, becomes 1st southern (Ala) black sheriff in 20th cent
1968 - 21st NHL All-Star Game: Toronto beat All-Stars 4-3 at Toronto
1968 - Jay Allen's "Prime of Miss Jean Brodie," premieres in NYC
1968 - The Youth International Party is founded.
1969 - Soviet Soyuz 4 & Soyuz 5 perform 1st transfer of crew in space
1970 - Col Kadhaffi becomes premier of Libya
1970 - Curt Flood files a civil lawsuit challenging baseball's reserve clause
1970 - NFL realigns into 3 divisions (down from 4)
1970 - AAU player Steve Myers makes a basketball field goal of 92'3½" from out of bounds, Tacoma-it shouldn't have counted, but was allowed
1970 - Buckminster Fuller receives the Gold Medal award from the American Institute of Architects.
1971 - Ard Schenk skates world record 1500m (1:58.7)
1972 - Atje Keulen-Deelstra becomes European all-round lady skating champ
1972 - Super Bowl VI: Dallas Cowboys-24, Miami-3 in New Orleans Superbowl MVP: Roger Staubach, Dallas, QB
1973 - NBC presents 440th & final showing of "Bonanza"
1973 - USSR's Lunakhod 2 begins radio-controlled exploration of Moon
1974 - "Jaws" by Peter Benchley is published
1974 - L A Landslide kills 9, Canyonville, Oregon
1974 - NY Yankees Mickey Mantle & Whitey Ford elected to Hall of Fame
1976 - "Donny & Marie" [Osmond] musical variety show premieres on ABC TV
1976 - Peter Frampton released platinum live album "Frampton Comes Alive"
1977 - Cap's H Monahan scored on 2nd penalty shot against Islanders
1978 - 5th American Music Award: Stevie Wonder, Fleetwood Mac & C Twitty
1978 - Soyuz 27 returns to Earth
1979 - Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlevi of Iran flees Iran for Egypt
1980 - Paul McCartney jailed in Tokyo for 10 days on marijuana possession
1981 - Boxer Leon Spinks is mugged, his assailants even took his gold teeth
1981 - John Lennon releases "Woman" in UK
1981 - Protestant gunmen shoot & wound Bernadette Devlin McAliskey & husband
1981 - Ivan Lendl intentionally loses a match in Volvo Masters in order to avoid having to play Bjorn Borg
1984 - 11th American Music Award: Michael Jackson
1984 - Paul & Linda McCartney arrested in Barbados-possession of cannabis
1985 - "Playboy" announces end of stapling centerfolds
1986 - Police arrested 3 IRA-terrorists in Amsterdam
1986 - First meeting of the Internet Engineering Task Force.
1988 - 4th Soap Opera Digest Awards - Days of Our Live wins
1988 - Jimmy "the Greek" Snyder fired from CBS for racial remarks
1988 - NFL St Louis Cardinals announce move to Phoenix
1989 - Police arrest writer Vaclav Havel in Prague
1989 - USSR announces plan for 2-yr manned mission to Mars
1990 - 2 Bank of Credit & Commerce members plea guilty to money laundering
1991 - 7th Soap Opera Digest Awards - Days of Our Live wins
1991 - US & 27 allies attack Iraq for occupying Kuwait (US time)
1992 - "2 Shakespearean Actors" opens at Cort Theater NYC for 29 performances
1994 - Scott skates world record 1000m (1:12.54)
1995 - UPN (Universal-Parmount Network) begins telecasting (WWOR in NYC)
1997 - Anthony Stuart takes ODI hat-trick, Aus v Pakistan, MCG
2001 - Congolese President Laurent-Désiré Kabila is assassinated by one of his own bodyguards.
2001 - US President Bill Clinton awards former President Theodore Roosevelt a posthumous Medal of Honor for his service in the Spanish-American War.
2002 - The UN Security Council unanimously establishes an arms embargo and the freezing of assets of Osama bin Laden, Al-Qaida, and the remaining members of the Taliban.
2003 - The Space Shuttle Columbia takes off for mission STS-107 which would be its final one. Columbia disintegrated 16 days later on re-entry.
2006 - Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf is sworn in as Liberia's new president. She becomes Africa's first female elected head of state.
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