Famous Events on this Day in History, April 12:467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire.
1065 - Pilgrims under bishop Gunther of Bamberg reach Jerusalem
1111 - Pope Paschalis II crowns Henry V, Roman emperor
1204 - 4th Crusade occupies & plunders Constantinople
1229 - Queen Blanche of Castile & earl Raymond VII van Toulouse sign peace
1385 - John without Fear marries Margaretha of Brabant
1385 - Willem van Oostervant weds Philip the Stouts daughter Margaretha (10)
1545 - French king Francois I orders protestants of Vaudois to be killed
1557 - Cuenca is founded in Ecuador.
1583 - William of Orange marries Louise de Coligny
1606 - England adopts Union Jack as its flag
1648 - University of Harderwijk Neth solemn opens
1654 - England, Ireland & Scotland united
1709 - 1st edition of Tattler magazine in England
1713 - Dutch State-Gen signs peace with France: Neth loses Orange Princedom
1770 - Townsend Acts repealed
1776 - Halifax resolution for independence adopted by North Carolina
1782 - Battle at Les Saintes West-Indies: British fleet beats French
1787 - Philadelphia's Free African Society forms
1811 - 1st US colonists on Pacific coast arrive at Cape Disappointment, WA
1820 - Alexander Ypsilantis is declared leader of Filiki Eteria, a secret organization to overthrow Ottoman rule over Greece.
1826 - Weber's opera "Oberon," premieres in London
1844 - Texas became a US territory
1857 - Gustave Flaubert's "Madame Bovary" published
1858 - 1st US billiards championship (Michael J Phelan wins in Detroit)
1859 - Hibernia Savings & Loan Society of SF incorporates
1861 - Fort Sumter, SC is shelled by Confederacy, starting Civil War
1862 - James Andrews steals Confederate train (General) at Kennesaw, GA
1862 - Union troops occupy Fort Pulaski Georgia
1863 - -14] Gunboat battle at Bayou Teche Louisiana
1864 - Battle of Blair's Landing LA
1864 - Confederate Gen Nathan Bedford Forrest captures Fort Pillow, Tn
1869 - North Carolina legislature passes anti-Klan Law
1872 - Jesse James gang robs bank in Columbia, Kentucky (1 dead/$1,500)
1877 - British annex Transvaal, in South Africa
1877 - Catcher's mask 1st used in a baseball game
1877 - The United Kingdom annexes the Transvaal.
1883 - French troops under lt-colonel Borgnis-Desbordes occupy Bamako Senegal
1887 - Henrik Ibsen's "Rosmersholm," premieres in Oslo
1892 - George C Blickensderfer patents portable typewriter
1893 - Battle at Hoornkrans Southwest-Africa: German Schutztruppen chases away Hottentotten under Hendrik Witbooi
1894 - British & Belgian secret accord on dividing Central-Africa
1896 - Stamasia Portrisi is 1st woman to win a marathon (5:30 in Athens)
1898 - Army transfers Yerba Buena Island in SF Bay to Navy
1905 - French Dufaux brothers test helicopter
1905 - Hippodrome arena opens (NYC)
1907 - Belgium govt of De Stain de Naeyer, resigns
1908 - Fire makes 17,000 homeless in Chelsea Massachusetts
1909 - Philadelphia's Shibe Park (later Connie Mack Stadium) opens
1911 - 1st non-stop London-Paris flight (Pierre Prier in 3h56m)
1917 - Bijou Theater opens at 222 W 45th St NYC (Demolished 1982)
1917 - Domenico Scarlatti & Jeab Cocteaus ballet premieres in Rome
1919 - British Parliament passes a 48-hour work week with minimum wages
1926 - Dutch Catholic Radio Broadcast (KRO) forms
1927 - Gen Chiang Kai-shek begins counter revolution in Shanghai
1928 - Assassination attempt on king Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
1930 - 4th Test Cricket WI v England ends in a draw after nine days
1930 - Wilfred Rhodes ends Test Cricket career aged 52 years 165 days
1931 - Joe McCarthy debuts as NY Yankee manager
1931 - Spanish voters reject the monarchy
1932 - Emmanuel Chabriers & Balanchines ballet premieres in Monte Carlo
1933 - Moffatt Field commissioned
1934 - Highest velocity wind ever recorded on Mt Washington, NH, 231 mph
1934 - The US Auto-Lite Strike begins, culminating in a five-day melee between Ohio National Guard troops and 6,000 strikers and picketers.
1935 - "Your Hit Parade," debuts on radio
1935 - Germany prohibits publishing "not-Arian" writers
1935 - Royal Proclamation sets design of Canada's new Jubilee Silver Dollar
1935 - First flight of the Bristol Blenheim.
1937 - Sir Frank Whittle ground-tests the first jet engine designed to power an aircraft at Rugby, England.
1938 - 1st US law requiring medical tests for marriage licenses (NY)
1938 - Stanley Cup: Chicago Blackhawks beat Toronto Maple Leafs, 3 games to 1
1938 - US began requiring medical tests for marriage licenses
1940 - Italy annexes Albania
1940 - NFL cuts clipping penalty from 25 yards to 15 yards
1941 - Stanley Cup: Boston Bruins sweep Detroit Red Wings in 4 games
1941 - Vichy-France's head of government Admiral Dalan consults with Hitler
1942 - 9th Golf Masters Championship: Byron Nelson wins, shooting a 280
1942 - Japan kills about 400 Filipino officers in Bataan
1943 - Allies conquer Soussa, North-Africa
1943 - Dutch Catholic University Nijmegen closed
1944 - Lillian Hellman's "Searching Wind," premieres in NYC
1945 - Canadian troops liberate Nazi concentration camp Westerbork, Neth
1945 - Harry Truman sworn in as 33rd pres
1945 - Richard Strauss completes his "Metamorphosis"
1945 - US liberates Buchenwald concentration camp
1946 - Syria gains independence from France
1951 - Israeli Knesset officially designated April 13 as Holocaust Day
1952 - Betsy Rawls wins LPGA Houston Weathervane Golf Tournament
1952 - Salaheddine Baccouche forms Tunisian government
1953 - 17th Golf Masters Championship: Ben Hogan wins, shooting a 274
1953 - KFDX TV channel 3 in Wichita Falls, TX (NBC) begins broadcasting
1953 - Keizo Yamada runs fastest marathon to date, at Boston
1954 - 18th Golf Masters Championship: Sam Snead wins, shooting a 289
1954 - 8th NBA Championship: Min Lakers beat Syracuse Nationals, 4 games to 3
1954 - Belgian Van Houtte government resigns
1954 - Bill Haley & Comets records "Rock Around Clock"
1954 - Joe Turner releases "Shake, Rattle & Roll"
1955 - 1st game in KC, KC A's beat Detroit Tigers, 6-2
1955 - Salk polio vaccine safe & effective; 4 billion dimes marched
1956 - Bandaranaike govt forms in Ceylon
1957 - Jim Spalding set a 2088 pin nine-game bowling record
1957 - USSR performs atmospheric nuclear test
1958 - 12th NBA Championship: St Louis Hawks beat Bost Celtics, 4 games to 2
1958 - Flemish Open air museum opens in Bokrijk
1959 - 13th Tony Awards: J B & Redhead win
1959 - Betsy Rawls wins LPGA Babe Didrikson-Zaharias Golf Open
1959 - France Observator reports torture practice by French army in Algeria
1960 - Bert Haanstra wins Oscar for "Glass"
1960 - Bill Veeck & Chicago Comiskey Park debuts "Exploding Scoreboard"
1961 - 3rd Grammy Awards: Theme From a Summer Place, Ray Charles wins 4
1961 - Douglas MacArthur declines offer to become baseball commissioner
1961 - Yuri Alexeyevich Gagarin becomes 1st person to orbit Earth (Vostok 1)
1962 - San Mateo County withdraws from BART district (SF Bay area)
1963 - Beatles "From Me to You" is released in UK
1963 - Birmingham police use dogs & cattle prods on peaceful demonstrators
1964 - 28th Golf Masters Championship: Arnold Palmer wins, shooting a 276
1964 - Sandra Haynie wins LPGA Baton Rouge Ladies' Golf Open Invitational
1965 - 1st NL game at Houston's Astrodome (Phillies beat Astros 2-0)
1966 - 1st B-52 bombing on North Vietnam
1966 - Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium opens; Pirates beat Braves 3-2
1966 - Rocker Jan Berry crashes his corvette into a parked truck
1968 - Nerve gas accident at Skull Valley, Utah.
1969 - Simon & Garfunkel releases "Boxer"
1970 - Yankees dedicate plaques to Mickey Mantle & Joe DiMaggio
1973 - France recognizes North Vietnam
1973 - Sudan adopts constitution
1973 - Swaziland suspends constitution
1975 - Linda Ronstadt releases "When Will I Be Loved"
1976 - India set 403 to win by WI They get them, 6 wkts 7 overs spare
1979 - Soyuz 33 returns to Earth
1980 - BCMA, Black Consciousness Movement of Azania, forms
1980 - Milwaukee beats Boston Red Sox, 18-1 (Cooper & Money hit grand slams)
1980 - Samuel Doe takes control of Liberia in a coup d'etat, ending over 130 years of national democratic presidential succession.
1980 - Terry Fox begins his "Marathon of Hope" at St. John's, Newfoundland.
1981 - 45th Golf Masters Championship: Tom Watson wins, shooting a 280
1981 - Donna Caponi Young wins LPGA American Defender/WRAL Golf Classic
1981 - Emmy News & Documentaries Award presentation
1981 - Maiden voyage Space Transit System-space shuttle Columbia launched
1982 - 3 CBS employees shot to death in NYC parking lot
1983 - Harold Washington becomes Chicago's 1st black mayor
1983 - USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
1985 - 16th Shuttle Mission (51D)-Discovery 4 launched-with Senator Jake Garn
1985 - US Olympic Committee endorses a boycott of Moscow games
1986 - 20,000 mine workers protest closing of Hasselt Belgium mines
1987 - 51st Golf Masters Championship: Larry Mize wins, shooting a 285
1987 - Ahmed Salah wins 2nd World Cup marathon (2:10:55)
1987 - Ayako Okamoto wins LPGA Kyocera Inamori Golf Classic
1987 - Texaco files for bankruptcy
1988 - Devils 4-2 over Islanders-Devils lead 3-2 in 1st round
1988 - Frank Robinson replaces Cal Ripkin as manager of Balt Orioles
1988 - Harvard U patents genetically engineered mouse (1st for animal life)
1988 - Sonny Bono elected mayor of Palm Springs Calif
1989 - 3rd Soul Train Music Awards: Anita Baker
1989 - Peter Ueberroth deal to purchase Eastern Airlines falls through
1990 - Greyhound Bus hires new drivers to replace strikers
1990 - James Brown moves to a work-release center after serving 15 months
1990 - 1st meeting of East German democratically elected parliament, acknowledges responsibility for Nazi holocaust & asks for forgivenesss
1991 - 2,500th episode of Entertainment Tonight airs
1991 - Nepalese Congress party wins general elections
1991 - US announces closing of 31 major US military bases
1992 - "Streetcar Named Desire" opens at Ethel Barrymore NYC for 137 perfs
1992 - 2nd lowest NBA scoring game - Detroit Piston 72, NY Knicks 61
1992 - 53rd PGA Seniors Golf Championship: Lee Trevino
1992 - 56th Golf Masters Championship: Fred Couples wins, shooting a 275
1992 - Actress Lisa Bonet files for divorce from singer Lenny Kravitz
1992 - Earthquake rocks Germany
1992 - Euro Disney opens in Marne-la-Vallee France
1992 - Lynn Gunther of Calif threatens to blow herself up in front of UN
1992 - Matt Young no-hits Cleveland, but loses 2-1
1992 - NY Mets lose 1st 3 home games for 1st time since 1962
1992 - Trump Shuttle becomes US Air Shuttle
1994 - Canter & Siegel post the first commercial mass Usenet spam.
1998 - 62nd Golf Masters Championship:
1998 - An earthquake in Slovenia, measuring 5.6 on the Richter scale occurs near the town of Bovec.
1999 - US President Bill Clinton is cited for contempt of court for giving "intentionally false statements" in a sexual harassment civil lawsuit.
2002 - Pedro Carmona becomes interim President of Venezuela during the military coup against Hugo Chávez.
2002 - Palestinian suicide bomber (female) kills 7 and injures 104 (among them 9 Arabs) at the Mahane Yehuda Market in Jerusalem.
2009 - U.S. Navy rescues captain Richard Phillips, killing three pirates and capturing a fourth.
2009 - President Mahmoud Abbas of the Palestinian National Authority makes a courtesy phone call to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel, restarting the Palestinian-Israeli dialogue